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Citations & Bibliographies

Frequently Used Style Guides

How do I cite?

If you are writing a paper or assignment, consult your instructor about the proper style used in your discipline. 

If you are writing for publication, check the author guidelines on a publisher's web page for the required style.

Why do I need to cite?

Using footnotes, bibliographies, and similar strategies serves two main purposes:

1. It gives credit to the person who created the idea.

2. It allows your readers to locate the sources you used, so they can read or judge them for themselves.

Is there software to help manage my citations?

Yes! Both EndNote and RefWorks are licensed for use by current NU faculty, staff, and students. Either program can help you collect and manage your references, and auto-format citations and bibliographies in your papers.

Endnote and Refworks have similar features:




Feature type



Organizing/grouping by category




Tagging (adding your own metadata/keywords)

Yes—double-click to edit the reference. Add your own phrases in the “Research Notes” or “Keywords” fields.


Select a reference to edit. Click on the Tag symbol. Or use the Pencil (edit) symbol and “Add tags.”

Auto-formatting a document

Cite-While-You-Write (or the Format Bibliography icon). A toolbar is added to Microsoft Word when you download Endnote. Endnote desktop is recommended.

Write-n-Cite, which you download in order to have a tab or toolbar in Microsoft Word. Currently does not work with Word 2016 on a Mac. (Mac users, use “Create a Bibliography” instead.)


Other tools for auto-formatting

(such as creating a “quick bibliography”)


Can select a folder and go to File> Print to print a formatted list of references.  Or use Format > Bibliography in Endnote Online to generate an HTML list.


Find the quote mark (”) icon. Under Tools, use “Create a Bibliography” or the “Quick Cite” feature.

Exporting from article databases

Use export feature in each database. Firefox preferred.


Use export feature in database or “Save to RefWorks” add-on

How your references are stored

On your computer’s hard drive and backed up in the cloud. Can create Endnote Online account.


On the RefWorks server; access through your RefWorks account. Accessible anywhere!


Sharing your references

Can invite someone to view your Endnote library (File> Share)

Use Share Folder (under Share & Export)


Citation styles available

>5,000 journal styles

>1,000 journal styles


Change citation style easily


Under “Edit”— Use “Output Styles” and “Open Style Manager”

Use the Citation Style Editor (under Create a Bibliography)

For more details on each program, see the introductory page for EndNote or RefWorks.